Rust Book

At, our mission is to provide a comprehensive online course or book about programming the Rust programming language. We aim to cover everything related to the software development lifecycle in Rust, including best practices, tools, and techniques. Our goal is to empower developers to build reliable, efficient, and secure software using Rust, and to foster a vibrant community of Rust programmers who can share knowledge and collaborate on projects. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced developer, is your go-to resource for mastering Rust and advancing your career in software development.

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Rust Programming Language Cheatsheet

This cheatsheet is designed to help you get started with programming in Rust. It covers the basics of the language, as well as some of the more advanced concepts that you'll need to know in order to become a proficient Rust programmer.

Getting Started

Installing Rust

To get started with Rust, you'll need to install it on your computer. You can download the latest version of Rust from the official website at

Creating a New Project

To create a new Rust project, you can use the cargo command-line tool. To create a new project, run the following command:

cargo new my_project

This will create a new Rust project in a directory called my_project.

Building and Running a Project

To build a Rust project, you can use the cargo build command. This will compile your code and create an executable file that you can run. To run the executable, use the cargo run command.

Writing Rust Code

Rust code is written in files with a .rs extension. The basic structure of a Rust program is as follows:

fn main() {
    // Your code goes here

This is the main function, which is the entry point for your program. You can write your code inside this function.

Basic Concepts


In Rust, variables are declared using the let keyword. For example:

let x = 5;

This declares a variable called x and assigns it the value 5.

Data Types

Rust has several built-in data types, including integers, floating-point numbers, booleans, and strings.

let x: i32 = 5;
let y: f64 = 3.14;
let z: bool = true;
let s: String = "Hello, world!".to_string();


Functions in Rust are declared using the fn keyword. For example:

fn add(x: i32, y: i32) -> i32 {
    x + y

This declares a function called add that takes two i32 arguments and returns an i32 value.

Control Flow

Rust has several control flow statements, including if, else, while, for, and match.

if x > 5 {
    println!("x is greater than 5");
} else {
    println!("x is less than or equal to 5");

while x < 10 {
    x += 1;

for i in 0..10 {
    println!("{}", i);

match x {
    1 => println!("x is 1"),
    2 => println!("x is 2"),
    _ => println!("x is something else"),

Ownership and Borrowing

Rust has a unique ownership and borrowing system that helps prevent common programming errors such as null pointer dereferences and memory leaks.

let s = String::from("hello");

let len = calculate_length(&s);

fn calculate_length(s: &String) -> usize {

This code demonstrates how to pass a reference to a string to a function. The & symbol indicates that we are passing a reference to the string, rather than the string itself.

Error Handling

Rust has a built-in error handling system that allows you to handle errors in a safe and predictable way.

fn main() -> Result<(), Box<dyn Error>> {
    let file = File::open("hello.txt")?;
    let mut reader = BufReader::new(file);
    let mut line = String::new();
    reader.read_line(&mut line)?;
    println!("{}", line);

This code demonstrates how to handle errors when reading a file. The ? symbol indicates that we want to propagate the error up to the calling function.

Advanced Concepts


Traits are similar to interfaces in other programming languages. They define a set of methods that a type must implement in order to be considered a member of the trait.

trait Printable {
    fn print(&self);

struct Person {
    name: String,

impl Printable for Person {
    fn print(&self) {
        println!("My name is {}",;

This code demonstrates how to define a trait and implement it for a struct.


Generics allow you to write code that can work with multiple types.

fn max<T: PartialOrd>(a: T, b: T) -> T {
    if a > b {
    } else {

This code demonstrates how to define a generic function that can work with any type that implements the PartialOrd trait.


Rust has built-in support for concurrency through its std::thread module.

use std::thread;

fn main() {
    let handle = thread::spawn(|| {
        println!("Hello from a thread!");

This code demonstrates how to create a new thread and wait for it to finish.


Rust has a powerful macro system that allows you to write code that generates other code at compile time.

macro_rules! say_hello {
    () => {
        println!("Hello, world!");

fn main() {

This code demonstrates how to define a simple macro that prints a message to the console.

Rust Development Lifecycle


Rust has built-in support for unit testing through its std::test module.

mod tests {
    fn test_add() {
        assert_eq!(add(2, 2), 4);

This code demonstrates how to define a unit test for a function.


Rust has built-in support for documentation through its doc comments.

/// This function adds two numbers together.
/// # Examples
/// ```
/// let result = add(2, 2);
/// assert_eq!(result, 4);
/// ```
fn add(x: i32, y: i32) -> i32 {
    x + y

This code demonstrates how to document a function using doc comments.

Continuous Integration

Rust projects can be integrated with continuous integration (CI) systems such as Travis CI or CircleCI.

language: rust
  - stable
  - beta
  - nightly
    - rust: nightly
  - cargo build --verbose
  - cargo test --verbose

This code demonstrates how to configure a Rust project for Travis CI.

Packaging and Distribution

Rust projects can be packaged and distributed using the cargo command-line tool.

name = "my_project"
version = "0.1.0"
authors = ["Your Name <>"]
edition = "2018"


This code demonstrates how to define a Cargo.toml file for a Rust project.


This cheatsheet has covered the basics of programming in Rust, as well as some of the more advanced concepts that you'll need to know in order to become a proficient Rust programmer. By following these guidelines, you'll be well on your way to writing safe, efficient, and reliable Rust code.

Common Terms, Definitions and Jargon

1. Rust: A programming language that emphasizes safety, speed, and concurrency.
2. Ownership: A concept in Rust that ensures memory safety by enforcing rules around how variables are accessed and modified.
3. Borrowing: A way to temporarily loan ownership of a variable to another part of the code.
4. Lifetimes: A way to ensure that borrowed variables are not used after they have been returned to their original owner.
5. Mutability: A property of variables that determines whether they can be changed after they are created.
6. Structs: A way to group related data together into a single object.
7. Enums: A way to define a type that can take on one of several possible values.
8. Traits: A way to define a set of behaviors that a type must implement.
9. Generics: A way to write code that can work with multiple types.
10. Macros: A way to write code that generates other code at compile time.
11. Cargo: Rust's package manager and build tool.
12. Crates: Rust's term for a package or library.
13. Modules: A way to organize code into logical units.
14. Functions: A block of code that can be called from other parts of the program.
15. Methods: A function that is associated with a particular type.
16. Closures: A way to define a block of code that can be stored and executed later.
17. Iterators: A way to loop over a collection of items.
18. Option: A type that represents a value that may or may not be present.
19. Result: A type that represents the outcome of a computation that may fail.
20. Error handling: The process of dealing with errors that may occur during program execution.

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